Portrait of Official Languages Groups in the Ottawa Area

Data sources

The data and analysis in this report were prepared by Statistics Canada in June 2014 at the request of the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. The Office of the Commissioner would like to thank Jean-Pierre Corbeil, Brigitte Chavez and Jean-François Lepage from the Language Statistics Section of the Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division for their diligent work and invaluable contribution.

This portrait of language groups in Ottawa presents information taken from the Canadian censuses of 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 and from the 2011 National Household Survey.

Information from the 2011 Census is based on data collected from 100% of Canadian households, while information from previous censuses is based on data collected on a 20% random sample basis.

Comparability of language data between censuses of population

For the first time in 2011, three language questions (knowledge of official languages, language spoken at home and mother tongue) were included on the census questionnaire that was administered to 100% of the population.

Language data and analyses published for all censuses since 1996 have been based almost exclusively on responses from the long-form census questionnaire administered to 20% of the population.

All trend analyses presented in this report compare 2011 Census data to previous long-form census data.

Evaluation of data on the knowledge of official languages and the first official language spoken indicates that these data are comparable to those of previous censuses.

However, Statistics Canada has observed changes in patterns of response to both the mother tongue and home language questions that appear to have arisen from changes in the placement and context of the language questions on the 2011 Census questionnaire relative to previous censuses. As a result, Canadians appear to have been less inclined than in previous censuses to report languages other than English or French as their only mother tongue, and also more inclined to report multiple languages as their mother tongue and as the language used most often at home.

It is not uncommon in survey research to observe changes in response patterns due to changes to a questionnaire and most particularly due to changes in the context in which the question is embedded.

Data users are advised to exercise caution when evaluating trends related to mother tongue and language spoken at home that compare 2011 Census data to those of previous censuses.

In the case of the mother tongue data, comparisons other than those done in the current analysis are possible depending on the needs of the user, given that mother tongue was asked on both the short- and long-form questionnaires in previous censuses. Users should take into account the advantages as well as the limitations of each dataset.

Readers will find a complete analysis of factors affecting comparability of language results between the censuses in the publication Methodological Document on the 2011 Census Language Data, Catalogue no. 98-314-XWE2011051.

This document presents a general portrait of language groups in the Ottawa area. The first section describes how the language groups have changed from 1981 to 2011, based on mother tongue, first official language spoken, knowledge of official languages and language spoken at home. The second section presents socio-demographic data on Ottawa’s two language communities, including data on education, income and employment. Sections three and four look at language groups in Ottawa neighbourhoods and in the census areas around Ottawa, respectively.

1. Language groups between 1981 and 2011 (census data, 1981 to 2011)

1.1. Mother tongue

1.1.1. Population by mother tongue in 2011

In 2011, English was the mother tongue of the majority (63.7%) of Ottawa’s population (see Table 1), while French was the mother tongue of 15.0% of Ottawans. The percentage of the population whose mother tongue was neither English nor French was 21.3%, due mainly to the strong increase in international immigration.

Table 1: Population by mother tongue, Ottawa census division, 2011
Mother tongue Number Percentage
Total population 872,450 100.0
English as mother tongue 555,489 63.7
French as mother tongue 131,299 15.0
Other languages as mother tongue 185,662 21.3

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

1.1.2. Population by mother tongue

Ottawa’s total population grew by 60.9% between 1981 and 2011, increasing from approximately 542,000 to more than 872,000 (see tables Table 2 and Table 3).

The number of Ottawans whose mother tongue is English grew by 45.9% between 1981 and 2011, for a total population of 555,500 in 2011. The population of Ottawans whose mother tongue is French had a more modest increase (26.1%), reaching 131,300 in 2011. In comparison, the population of people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French more than tripled (225.1%), reaching 185,700 in 2011.

Table 2: Population growth rates by mother tongue, Ottawa census division, 1981 to 2011
Mother tongue Growth rate (%)
Total growth 60.9
English as mother tongue 45.9
French as mother tongue 26.1
Other languages as mother tongue 225.1

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Ottawa census division data from the 1981 Census corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981 and 2011 censuses

 
Table 3: Population by mother tongue, Ottawa census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total English as mother tongue French as mother tongue Other languages as mother tongue
Number Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
1981 542,095 380,860 70.3 104,120 19.2 57,115 10.5
1991 671,335 455,613 67.9 116,748 17.4 98,985 14.7
2001 763,790 492,680 64.5 119,910 15.7 151,205 19.8
2006 801,275 508,706 63.5 124,018 15.5 168,551 21.0
2011 872,450 555,489 63.7 131,299 15.0 185,662 21.3

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Ottawa census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

1.1.3. Proportion of the population by mother tongue from 1981 to 2011

Between 1981 and 2011, the proportions of Ottawans whose mother tongue was English and whose mother tongue was French dropped from 70.3% to 63.7% and from 19.2% to 15.0%, respectively (see Table 4). However, the proportion of the population whose mother tongue was neither English nor French more than doubled over the same period, increasing from 10.5% to 21.3%.Footnote 1

Table 4: Proportion of population by mother tongue, Ottawa census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total (%) English as mother tongue (%) French as mother tongue (%) Other languages as mother tongue (%)
1981 100.0 70.3 19.2 10.5
1991 100.0 67.9 17.4 14.7
2001 100.0 64.5 15.7 19.8
2006 100.0 63.5 15.5 21.0
2011 100.0 63.7 15.0 21.3

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Ottawa census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

1.2. First official language spoken

1.2.1. Population by first official language spoken in 2011

In 2011, English was the first official language spoken (FOLS) among a large majority (82.3%) of Ottawa’s population (see Table 5). The percentage of the population whose FOLS was French was 16.4%, and the percentage of the population whose FOLS was neither English nor French was 1.3%. These results indicate that people whose mother tongue is neither English nor French adopt English as their official language. This phenomenon has a direct effect on the growth rate of populations whose FOLS is English or French.

Table 5: Population by first official language spoken, Ottawa census division, 2011
First official language spoken Number Percentage
Total population 872,450 100.0
English as the first official language spoken 717,880 82.3
French as the first official language spoken 143,045 16.4
Neither French nor English as the first official language spoken 11,530 1.3

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

1.2.2. Proportion of population by first official language spoken, from 1981 to 2011

The population of Ottawans whose FOLS was English grew by 66.3% between 1981 and 2011 to a total of 717,900 in 2011 (see tables Table 6 and Table 7). The population of Ottawans whose FOLS was French had slower growth (35.0%), for a total of 143,000 in 2011. In comparison, the population of Ottawans whose FOLS was neither English nor French, although relatively smaller, saw its numbers more than double (163.1%), for a total of 11,500 in 2011.

Table 6: Population growth rates by first official language spoken, Ottawa census division, 1981 to 2011
First official language spoken Growth rate (%)
Total growth 60.9
English as the first official language spoken 66.3
French as the first official language spoken 35.0
Other languages as the first official language spoken 163.1

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Ottawa census division data from the 1981 Census corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981 and 2011 censuses

 
Table 7: Population by first official language spoken, Ottawa census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total English as the first official language spoken French as the first official language spoken Neither English nor French as the first official language spoken
Number Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
1981 542,093 431,748 79.6 105,964 19.5 4,383 0.8
1991 671,335 541,913 80.7 121,353 18.1 8,070 1.2
2001 763,790 625,153 81.8 128,513 16.8 10,125 1.3
2006 801,275 656,108 81.9 135,223 16.9 9,945 1.2
2011 872,450 717,880 82.3 143,045 16.4 11,530 1.3

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Ottawa census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses.

 

1.2.3. Proportion of the population by first official language spoken

Because Ottawa’s immigrants tend mainly to adopt English as their official language, the proportion of people whose FOLS was English grew by 2.7 percentage points between 1981 and 2011 (see Table 8), while the share of people whose FOLS was French dropped by 3.2 percentage points. The proportion of the population whose FOLS was neither English nor French increased from 0.8% to 1.3% over this period, an increase that occurred primarily between 1981 and 1991.

Table 8: Proportion of the population by first official language spoken, Ottawa census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total (%) English as the first official language spoken (%) French as the first official language spoken (%) Neither English nor French as the first official language spoken (%)
1981 100.0 79.6 19.5 0.8
1991 100.0 80.7 18.1 1.2
2001 100.0 81.8 16.8 1.3
2006 100.0 81.9 16.9 1.2
2011 100.0 82.3 16.4 1.3

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Ottawa census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

1.3. Knowledge of official languages

From 1981 to 2011, the proportion of people in Ottawa who reported being able to conduct a conversation only in English or only in French dropped slightly, from 62.8% to 59.9% and from 2.2% to 1.5%, respectively (see Table 9). However, the drop in English unilingualism coincided with a proportional increase in English-French bilingualism, which rose from 34.1% to 37.2% over 30 years. The proportion of people who reported being unable to conduct a conversation in English or French increased slightly from 0.9% to 1.3% between 1981 and 1991, and has since remained stable. This stability results from the fact that immigrants are more likely to be unfamiliar with either official languages at the time they arrive in Canada. This unfamiliarity tends to decrease the longer they stay.

Table 9: Knowledge of official languages, Ottawa census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total knowledge of official languages(%) English only as the knowledge of official languages (%) French only as the knowledge of official languages (%) English and French as the knowledge of official languages (%) Neither English nor French as the knowledge of official languages (%)
1981 100.0 62.8 2.2 34.1 0.9
1991 100.0 60.7 1.8 36.2 1.3
2001 100.0 60.6 1.4 36.6 1.4
2006 100.0 59.9 1.6 37.2 1.3
2011 100.0 59.9 1.5 37.2 1.4

Note:

Ottawa census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

In Ottawa, the proportion of people who reported being able to conduct a conversation in English remained practically unchanged between 1981 and 2011, hovering around 97% (see Table 10). On the other hand, because of the tendency mentioned above, the proportion of people who reported being able to conduct a conversation in increased from 36.3% in 1981 to 38.7% in 2011.

Table 10: Knowledge of official languages, Ottawa census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year knowledge of At least English as an official language(%) knowledge of At least French as an official language (%)
1981 97.0 36.3
1991 97.0 38.0
2001 97.2 38.0
2006 97.1 38.8
2011 97.2 38.7

Note:

The categories "English" and "French" include all responses that mention either of these languages.

Ottawa census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

1.4. Language spoken at home

1.4.1. Official languages spoken at homeFootnote 2

Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of people in Ottawa who reported English as the only language they speak at home, or as the language they most often speak at home, has changed little, increasing from 81.8% to 82.3%. In the same period, the proportion of people who reported French as the only language they speak at home, or as the language they most often speak at home, has changed little as well, decreasing from 11.2% to 10.4% (see Table 11). The proportions of people who reported speaking English and French equally at home or speaking only another language also varied little over this period, rising from 1.2% to 1.8% and dipping from 5.9% to 5.5%, respectively.

The proportion of people who reported speaking only English at home has remained relatively stable, decreasing from 76.4% in 2001 to 75.8% in 2011, while the proportion of people who reported speaking English most often at home rose slightly from 5.4% to 6.5% over the same period.

The proportions of people who reported speaking only French at home or who reported speaking French most often at home changed very little between 2001 and 2011, decreasing from 6.7% to 6.0% and from 4.5% to 4.4%, respectively.

Table 11: Official languages spoken at home, Ottawa census division, 2001, 2006 and 2011
  2001 (%) 2006 (%) 2011 (%)
Total Official languages spoken at home 100.0 100.0 100.0
English only as the official languages spoken at home 76.4 76.0 75.8
English most often as the official languages spoken at home 5.4 6.1 6.5
English and French equally as the official languages spoken at home 1.2 1.2 1.8
French most often as the official languages spoken at home 4.5 4.4 4.4
French only as the official languages spoken at home 6.7 6.5 6.0
Other only as the official languages spoken at home 5.9 5.8 5.5

Note:

Ottawa census division data from the 2001 and 2006 censuses corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

1.4.2. Language spoken most often at home

Between 1981 and 2011, the proportion of people in Ottawa who reported speaking English most often at home decreased from 78.7% to 77.0% (see Table 12). Over the same period, the drop in the proportion of people who reported speaking French most often at home was greater, from 15.5% to 10.7%. Conversely, the proportion of people who reported speaking another language most often at home more than doubled, from 5.8% in 1981 to 12.3% in 2011.

Table 12: Language spoken most often at home, Ottawa census division, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011
Year Total (%) of all languages spoken most often at home English (%) as the language spoken most often at home French (%) as the language spoken most often at home Other (%) as the language spoken most often at home
1981 100.0 78.7 15.5 5.8
1991 100.0 78.8 12.8 8.3
2001 100.0 76.9 11.3 11.8
2006 100.0 76.9 11.1 11.9
2011 100.0 77.0 10.7 12.3

Note:

Multiple responses were equally distributed.

Ottawa census division data from the censuses between 1981 and 2006 corresponds to the 2011 geographical boundaries.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2006 and 2011 censuses

 

2. Characteristics of language groups (data from 2011 National Household Survey)

2.1. Mother tongue

2.1.1. Sex

In 2011, 48.6% of Ottawa residents were men and 51.4% were women. However, the disparity between the percentage of women and men was much higher among those whose mother tongue was French: the distribution was 46.2% men and 53.8% women, while for those whose mother tongue was English, it was 49.6% men and 50.4% women. Among those whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, the distribution was 47.2% men and 52.8% women.

2.1.2 Age

Certain differences emerge when examining age in the population by mother tongue (see Table 13). For example, the 0- to 34-year age group represented a larger proportion of the population whose mother tongue was English than it did among those whose mother tongue was French. Conversely, the 34-plus age group represented a larger proportion among those whose mother tongue was French than among those whose mother tongue was English. It can therefore be stated that the population whose mother tongue was English was younger than the population whose mother tongue was French. With regard to the population whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, there was a high proportion of people in the 35- to 44-year age group compared to the populations whose mother tongue was either English or French.

Table 13: Age by mother tongue
  Total Population English as their mother tongue French as their mother tongue Neither English nor French as their mother tongue
Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
Total 867,090 100 553,250 100 119,700 100 194,145 100
0 to 14 148,130 17.1 103,805 18.8 18,280 15.3 26,045 13.4
15 to 24 123,330 14.2 84,935 15.4 14,275 11.9 24,125 12.4
25 to 34 118,545 13.7 76,375 13.8 15,230 12.7 26,940 13.9
35 to 44 123,755 14.3 72,510 13.1 16,040 13.4 35,215 18.1
45 to 64 247,620 28.6 153,210 27.7 38,025 31.8 56,385 29.0
65+ 105,705 12.2 62,415 11.3 17,845 14.9 25,455 13.1

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

2.1.3. Knowledge of both official languages and trilingualism

In 2011, 36.9% of people in Ottawa reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages.

The proportion of people whose mother tongue was French and who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages (90.9%) was greater than the proportion of people whose mother tongue was English (29.4%) and the proportion of people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French (25.1%).

The proportion of people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French and who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages as well as at least one other language (24.4%) was greater than the corresponding proportions for the French-speaking (11.7%) and English-speaking (3.8%) populations.

Nearly everyone whose mother tongue was neither English nor French and who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages also reported being able to conduct a conversation in a third language.

2.1.4. Children with at least one parent whose mother tongue is French

In 2011, out of the 26,395 children under the age of 18 in Ottawa who have at least one parent whose mother tongue is French, 53.3% reported French as their only mother tongue, 38.7% reported English as their only mother tongue, 0.9% reported a language other than English or French as their mother tongue and 6.2% reported both English and French as their mother tongue.

2.1.5. Province of work

In all, only 4.4% of Ottawa’s labour force worked in Quebec in 2011, including 3.9% of workers whose mother tongue was English, 6.7% of workers whose mother tongue was French and 4.6% of workers whose mother tongue was neither English nor French.

2.1.6. Language of work

In 2011, the vast majority (97.7%) of Ottawa workers reported using English most often and regularly at work. A smaller percentage (26.6%) reported using French and 2.4% reported using another language.

Almost all (99.7%) Ottawa workers whose mother tongue was English reported using English at work: 97.2% used it most often, 1.8% used it equally with French and 0.8% used it regularly as a secondary language. Among Ottawa workers whose mother tongue was English, 17.8% reported using French at work, with 1.0% using it most often, 1.8% using it equally with English and 15.0% using it regularly as a secondary language.

A large majority (82.5%) of Ottawa workers whose mother tongue was French reported using French at work: 26.2% used it most often, 12.8% used it equally with English and 43.5% used it regularly as a secondary language. Among Ottawa workers whose mother tongue was French, 90.6% reported using English at work, with 60.9% using it most often, 12.8% using it equally with French and 16.8% using it regularly as a secondary language.

The vast majority (96.3%) of Ottawa workers whose mother tongue was neither English nor French reported using English at work: 89.6% used it most often, 4.2% used it equally with French and 2.5% used it regularly as a secondary language. Among Ottawa workers whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, 18.1% reported using French at work, with 3.5% using it most often, 4.2% using it equally with English and 10.4% using it regularly as a second language.

2.1.7. Interprovincial migration

According to the statistics from 2011, 4.2% of Ottawa’s population resided in a province or territory other than Ontario at the time of the 2006 Census. Interprovincial migration was slightly higher among people whose mother tongue was French (5.6%), but was almost the same for people whose mother tongue was English (4.0%) and people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French (3.8%).

Interprovincial migrants came to Ottawa mainly from four provinces: Quebec (39.3%), British Columbia (17.0%), Alberta (13.1%) and Nova Scotia (11.6%).

Interprovincial migrants whose mother tongue was English came to Ottawa mainly from four provinces: Quebec (23.8%), British Columbia (20.9%), Nova Scotia (16.6%) and Alberta (16.2%).

Interprovincial migrants whose mother tongue was French came to Ottawa mainly from Quebec (73.2%) and New Brunswick (8.2%).

Interprovincial migrants whose mother tongue was neither English nor French came to Ottawa mainly from Quebec (54.4%), British Columbia (17.0%) and Alberta (10.5%).

2.1.8. Immigrant status and period of immigration

In 2011, nearly a quarter (23.4%) of Ottawans were immigrants. The proportions among the English-speaking and French-speaking populations were 8.9% and 8.2%, respectively. Close to three quarters (73.9%) of people whose mother tongue was neither English nor French were born outside of Canada.

In 2011, 70.9% of Ottawa’s immigrant population reported that their mother tongue was neither English nor French, while English was the mother tongue of 24.3% of Ottawa immigrants, and French was the mother tongue of 4.9% of newcomers to Ottawa.

In Ottawa, almost 30% of immigrants had arrived in Canada less than 10 years ago. Among French-speaking immigrants, this proportion was 41.9%, while it was much lower at 19.4% for English-speaking immigrants. In comparison, close to a third (31.7%) of immigrants whose mother tongue was neither English nor French had settled in Canada during the same period.

2.1.9. Visible minorities

In 2011, visible minorities represented close to a quarter (23.7%) of Ottawa’s population. The largest proportion of visible minorities was in the population whose mother tongue was neither English nor French (68.1%). It was 11.4% for those whose mother tongue is French and 10.7% for those whose mother tongue is English.

In 2011, the mother tongue for nearly two thirds (64.4%) of the visible minority population in Ottawa was a language other than English or French, while English was the mother tongue for 28.9% and French was the mother tongue for 6.7%.

In 2011, the four largest groups of visible minorities in Ottawa were Black, Chinese, South Asian and Arab, which represented 24.2%, 17.0%, 16.5% and 15.8% of the visible minority population, respectively. Among the visible minorities whose mother tongue was English, the four largest groups in Ottawa were Black, South Asian, Chinese and Arab, representing 32.0%, 19.9%, 12.9% and 10.2% of the visible minority population, respectively.

Among the visible minorities whose mother tongue was French, the two largest groups were Black (76.6%) and Arab (10.7%). And among the visible minorities whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, the largest group proportionally was Chinese (20.2%), followed by Arab (18.8%), South Asian (16.5%) and Black (15.3%).

2.1.10. Highest level of education attained

In 2011, 12.9% of Ottawa’s population aged 15 and older had no certificate, diploma or degree.

The proportion of the population aged 15 or older whose mother tongue was neither English nor French and who did not have a certificate, diploma or degree was 14.9%. The proportions for those whose mother tongue was English and for those whose mother tongue was French were 11.9% and 14.3%, respectively.

In 2011, nearly two thirds (63.7%) of Ottawa’s population aged 15 and older had post-secondary qualifications.

Among Ottawans aged 15 and older, approximately two thirds (66.0%) whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, whose mother tongue was English (63.2%) and whose mother tongue was French (61.6%) had post-secondary qualifications.

In 2011, a little over a third (35.4%) of Ottawa’s population aged 15 and older had post-secondary qualifications at a bachelor level or above.

Among Ottawans aged 15 and older whose mother tongue was neither English nor French, 40.4% had post-secondary qualifications at a bachelor level or above. For those whose mother tongue was English and those whose mother tongue was French, the percentages were 34.5% and 31.1%, respectively.

2.1.11. Unemployment rate

In 2011, the unemployment rateFootnote 3 in Ottawa was 7.0%.

Ottawans whose mother tongue was French had the lowest unemployment rate (5.2%), followed by those whose mother tongue was English (6.7%) and those whose mother tongue was neither English nor French (8.8%).

2.1.12. Income and employment incomeFootnote 4

In 2011, Ottawans whose mother tongue was French had a mean income of approximately $52,600 and a medianFootnote 5 income of approximately $45,400. This was $500 and $3,500 higher, respectively, than the income of those whose mother tongue was English (whose mean and median incomes were $52,100 and $41,900, respectively).Footnote 6

People living in Ottawa whose mother tongue was neither English nor French had a mean income that was $10,600 lower than that of the Francophone population and $10,200 lower than that of the Anglophone population. Their median income was $16,200 lower than that of the Francophone population and $12,700 lower than that of Anglophone population.

In terms of employment income, Ottawans whose mother tongue was French had a mean income of $53,400 and a median income of $47,900, while those whose mother tongue was English were paid $2,300 and $6,600 less, respectively (i.e., mean and median employment incomes of $51,100 and $41,300, respectively).

Ottawans whose mother tongue was neither English nor French had a mean employment income that was $7,800 lower than that of the Francophone population and $5,500 lower than that of the Anglophone population. Their median employment income was $13,000 lower than that of the Francophone population and $6,500 lower than that of the Anglophone population.

2.1.13. Employment sectors

In 2011, slightly more than half (53.1%) of Ottawa’s labour force was employed in the following sectors: public administration (22.8%), retail trade (10.2%), health care and social assistance (10.1%) and professional, scientific and technical services (9.9%).

Similarly, slightly more than half (53.3%) of Ottawa’s Anglophone workers were employed in public administration (22.2%), retail trade (11.0%), professional, scientific and technical services (10.4%) and health care and social assistance (9.7%).

Just over half (51.2%) of Ottawa’s Francophone workers were employed in public administration (31.2%), health care and social assistance (10.3%) and educational services (9.6%).

And half (50.4%) of working Ottawans whose mother tongue was neither English nor French were employed in public administration (19.5%), health care and social assistance (11.2%), professional, scientific and technical services (10.1%) and retail trade (9.5%).

In 2011, workers whose mother tongue was English constituted 64.3% of Ottawa’s labour force. This segment of the population was overrepresented in the sectors of utilities (77.0%), agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (76.4%) and management of companies and enterprises (74.5%), and slightly underrepresented in the sectors of transportation and warehousing (59.6%), manufacturing (60.1%) and accommodation and food services (60.4%).

Workers whose mother tongue was French represented 13.6% of Ottawa’s labour force. This group was overrepresented in public administration (18.6%)Footnote 7 and educational services (16.7%) and underrepresented in accommodation and food services (7.5%), agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (8.8%) and management of companies and enterprises (9.1%).

Workers whose mother tongue was neither English nor French made up 22.1% of Ottawa’s labour force and was overrepresented in manufacturing (29.8%), transportation and warehousing (26.4%) and administrative and support, waste management and remediation services (25.8%). It was underrepresented in utilities (13.5%) and arts, entertainment and recreation (12.0%).

2.1.14. Occupations

In 2011, the most common occupations among workers in Ottawa whose mother tongue was English were associated with sales and service (20.9%), business, finance and administration (19.5%) and education, law and social, community and government services (16.0%).

The most common occupations in Ottawa for workers whose mother tongue was French were related to business, finance and administration (24.7%), sales and service (17.4%) and education, law and social, community and government services (16.8%).

The most common occupations for Ottawa workers whose mother tongue was neither English nor French were in sales and service (24.9%), natural and applied sciences and related occupations (16.8%) and business, finance and administration (16.0%).

2.1.15. English-French exogamous couples

In 2011, out of the 43,065 Ottawa couples in which the mother tongue of one spouse was French, 23,655 (54.9%) were English-French exogamous couples.

2.2. First official language spoken

2.2.1. Sex

In 2011, 48.6% of Ottawa residents were men and 51.4% were women. Among those whose FOLS was English, the distribution was 49.3% men and 50.7% women. The disparity between the percentage of men and women was distinctly higher among those whose FOLS was French, with a distribution of 45.8% men and 54.2% women. Among those whose FOLS was neither English nor French, the disparity was even higher, with 38.8% men and 61.2% women.

2.2.2. Age

The population whose FOLS was French had fewer people in the 0- to 34-year age group and more people in the 45-plus age group (see Table 14). It thus represented a slightly older population than the population whose FOLS was English. However, the biggest difference was in the population whose FOLS was neither English nor French. This population had a very high proportion of people in the 65-plus age group (41.5%) and in the 0- to 14-year (26.8%) age group compared to the other two language groups.

Table 14: Age by first official language spoken
  Total Population English as the first official language spoken French as the first official language spoken Neither English nor French as the first official language spoken
Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
Total 867,090 100 731,430 100 134,555 100 11,105 100
0 to 14 148,130 17.1 124,040 17.2 21,115 15.7 2,980 26.8
15 to 24 123,330 14.2 106,720 14.8 16,380 12.2 230 2.1
25 to 34 118,545 13.7 100,895 14.0 17,215 12.8 430 3.9
35 to 44 123,755 14.3 103,960 14.4 19,220 14.3 575 5.2
45 to 64 247,620 28.6 203,710 28.2 41,635 30.9 2,290 20.6
65+ 105,705 12.2 82,100 11.4 18,990 14.1 4,605 41.5

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

2.2.3. Knowledge of both official languages and trilingualism

In 2011, the proportion of Ottawans whose FOLS was French and who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages (90.7%) was greater than that of people whose FOLS was English (27.5%).

The proportion of Ottawans whose FOLS was French and who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both official languages and at least one other language (20.6%) was also greater than that of people whose FOLS was English (7.6%).

2.2.4. Province of work

In 2011, 4.0% of Ottawa workers whose FOLS was English were employed in Quebec, as were 6.9% of workers whose FOLS was French.

2.2.5. Language of work

In 2011, almost all (99.5%) Ottawa workers whose FOLS was English reported using English at work in 2011: 96.4% used it most often, 2.1% used it equally with French and 1.0% used it regularly as a secondary language. Among Ottawa workers whose FOLS was English, 16.8% reported using French at work, with 1.1% using it most often, 2.1% using it equally with English and 13.6% using it regularly as a secondary language.

A large majority (89.2%) of Ottawa workers whose FOLS was French reported using English at work in 2011: 59.3% used it most often, 13.5% used it equally with French and 16.3% used it regularly as a secondary language. Among Ottawa workers whose FOLS was French 81.8% reported using French at work, with 26.9% using it most often, 13.5% using it equally with English and 41.4% using it regularly as a secondary language.

2.2.6. Interprovincial migration

In 2011, 3.9% of Ottawans whose FOLS was English reported having lived in a province or territory other than Ontario at the time of the 2006 Census. The proportion was 5.9% for Ottawans whose FOLS was French.

Interprovincial migrants whose FOLS was English came to Ottawa mainly from Quebec (29.0%), British Columbia (20.4%), Alberta (15.4%) and Nova Scotia (13.8%), while those whose FOLS was French came to Ottawa mainly from Quebec (75.6%) and New Brunswick (7.0%).

2.2.7. Immigrant status and period of immigration

In 2011, 84.9% of Ottawa’s immigrant population reported that their FOLS was English, and 11.1% said that their FOLS was French. The percentage of Ottawa immigrants whose FOLS was neither English nor French was 3.9%.

In 2011, 42.8% of Ottawa immigrants whose FOLS was French had arrived in Canada less than 10 years ago. This proportion was approximately the same (41.6%) for immigrants whose FOLS was neither English nor French. In comparison, 26.9% of immigrants whose FOLS was English had settled in Canada during the past 10 years.

2.2.8. Visible minorities

In 2011, a large majority (82.8%) of Ottawa’s visible minority population had English as their FOLS. Individuals whose FOLS was French made up 12.7% of visible minorities, and those whose FOLS was neither English nor French represented 4.5% of visible minorities.

Visible minorities represented close to a quarter (23.6%) of Ottawans whose FOLS was English. In comparison, they represented almost a fifth (19.4%) of Ottawans whose FOLS was French .

Among the visible minorities whose FOLS was English, the largest groups in Ottawa were South Asian (19.0%), Black (18.8%), Chinese (17.8%) and Arab (15.4%).

Among the visible minorities whose FOLS was French, the largest groups were Black (65.1%) and Arab (16.6%).

Among the visible minorities whose FOLS was neither English nor French, the largest group was Chinese (38.4%), followed by Arab (19.4%), Southeast Asian (10.0%), Black (9.0%) and South Asian (8.9%).

2.2.9. Highest level of education attained

In 2011, the majority (56.1%) of Ottawa’s population aged 15 and older whose FOLS was neither English nor French had no certificate, diploma or degree. The proportions for those whose FOLS was English and for those whose FOLS was French were 12.1% and 14.1%, respectively.

Among Ottawans aged 15 and older whose FOLS was English, almost two thirds (64.4%) had post-secondary qualifications, as did those whose FOLS was French (62.7%). In comparison, less than a quarter (24.4%) of Ottawans whose FOLS was neither English nor French had post-secondary qualifications.

Among Ottawans aged 15 and older whose FOLS was English, approximately a third (36.3%) had post-secondary qualifications at a bachelor level or above. The proportion was about the same for those whose FOLS was French (32.3%). In comparison, only 11.4% of Ottawans whose FOLS was neither English nor French had post-secondary qualifications at a bachelor level or above.

2.2.10. Unemployment rate

In 2011, people whose FOLS was French had the lowest unemployment rate (6.0%) in Ottawa, followed by those whose FOLS was English (7.1%) and those whose FOLS was neither English nor French (11.7%).

2.2.11. Income and employment income

In 2011, the mean and median incomes of Ottawans whose FOLS was French ($51,200 and $43,700, respectively) were higher by $1,200 and $4,500, respectively, than the mean and medium incomes of those whose FOLS was English ($50,000 and $39,200, respectively).Footnote 8

The mean and median employment incomes of Ottawans whose FOLS was French ($52,100 and $46,200, respectively) were higher by $2,100 and $6,200, respectively, than the mean and median employment incomes of those whose FOLS was English ($50,000 and $40,000, respectively).

2.2.12. Employment sectors

In 2011, slightly more than half (52.6%) of Ottawa workers whose FOLS was English were employed in the following sectors: public administration (21.6%), retail trade (10.7%), professional, scientific and technical services (10.4%) and health care and social assistance (9.9%).

Slightly more than half (51.4%) of Ottawa workers whose FOLS was French were employed in public administration (30.4%), health care and social assistance (11.1%) and educational services (9.9%).

In 2011, workers whose FOLS was English constituted 84.4% of Ottawa’s labour force. This segment of the population was slightly overrepresented in sectors such as mining, quarrying and oil and gas extraction (89.7%), utilities (89.6%) and management of companies and enterprises (89.1%) and slightly underrepresented in the public administration (79.6%) and educational services (80.4%) sectors.

Workers whose FOLS was French represented 15.3% of Ottawa’s labour force. This group was overrepresented in the public administration (20.3%)Footnote 9 and educational services (19.4%) sectors and underrepresented in utilities (10.4%), agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (10.3%) and accommodation and food services (9.5%).

2.2.13. Occupations

In 2011, the most common occupations for workers in Ottawa whose FOLS was English were related to sales and service (21.7%), business, finance and administration (18.7%) and education, law and social, community and government services (15.6%).

The most common occupations in Ottawa among workers whose FOLS was French were associated with business, finance and administration (23.8%), sales and service (18.4%) and education, law and social, community and government services (17.4%).

3. Language groups in Ottawa wards (2011 Census data)

3.1. Mother tongue

In 2011, five wards had a population of more than 10,000 individuals whose mother tongue was French (data not shown). These were also the wards in which French was the mother tongue of over 30% of the population (see Table 15). The wards were Cumberland (36.8% of the ward’s population), Orléans (30.5%), Rideau–Vanier (30.8%), Innes (31.7%) and Rideau–Rockcliffe (30.1%).

Table 15: Percentage of the population with French as mother tongue, city of Ottawa and its wards, 2011
Ward Mother tongue – French (%)
Cumberland 36.8
Innes 31.7
Rideau–Vanier 30.8
Orléans 30.5
Rideau–Rockcliffe 30.1
Beacon Hill–Cyrville 26.3
Alta Vista 15.6
Somerset 12.8
Gloucester–Southgate 11.7
Capital 11.2
Osgoode 9.8
River 9.6
Kitchissippi 9.2
Bay 8.6
Gloucester–South Nepean 8.5
Stittsville 7.2
Kanata South 7.2
College 7.0
Barrhaven 6.7
Knoxdale–Merivale 6.7
Kanata North 6.2
West Carleton–March 6.1
Rideau–Goulbourn 5.7
Total – Ottawa 15.0

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

These five wards had a total of 65,685 people whose mother tongue is French, which was half of all Ottawans whose mother tongue was French (data not shown).

3.2. First official language spoken

Examining the official language minority percentage by FOLS in 2011 shows that the proportion of French speakers was higher than 30% in five Ottawa wards (see Table 16): Cumberland (38.5%), Innes (33.5%), Rideau–Rockcliffe (33.4%), Rideau–Vanier (33.2%) and Orléans (31.7%). The Beacon Hill–Cyrville (29.2%) and Alta Vista (18.5 %) wards also had a higher proportion of French speakers than the city of Ottawa overall (16.4%).

Table 16: Percentage of the population with French as first official language spoken (with redistribution of the English-French category), by ward, 2011
Ward French as first official language spoken (%)
Cumberland 38.5
Innes 33.5
Rideau–Rockcliffe 33.4
Rideau–Vanier 33.2
Orléans 31.7
Beacon Hill–Cyrville 29.2
Alta Vista 18.5
Somerset 14.4
Gloucester–Southgate 13.7
Capital 12.0
River 11.6
Bay 9.9
Gloucester–South Nepean 9.8
Osgoode 9.6
Kitchissippi 9.6
Kanata South 7.7
Kanata North 7.6
College 7.6
Knoxdale–Merivale 7.6
Barrhaven 7.3
Stittsville 7.1
West Carleton–March 5.9
Rideau–Goulbourn 5.3
Total – Ottawa 16.4

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

These five wards had a total of 69,835 people whose FOLS was French, which was nearly half (48.8%) of all Ottawans whose FOLS was French (data not shown).

3.3. Knowledge of both official languages

In 2011, the overall English-French bilingualism rate in Ottawa was 37.2%. The highest rate (nearly 56%) was in the Cumberland ward and the lowest (23%) was in the Rideau–Goulbourn ward. The wards with the highest French-speaking population were generally those with the highest rates of English-French bilingualism (see Table 17). More than half of Ottawans were able to conduct a conversation in English and French in the wards of Cumberland (55.8%), Innes (53.8%), Rideau–Vanier (52.7%), Orléans (51.7%) and Rideau–Rockcliffe (51.6%). However, some wards had high bilingualism rates despite relatively small French-speaking populations, including Capital, Kitchissippi, Gloucester–South Nepean, River and Osgoode. These five wards had French-speaking populations of less than 15%, but bilingualism rates of higher than 30%.

Table 17: Knowledge of both official languages, city of Ottawa and its wards, 2011
Ward Mother tongue – French (%)
Cumberland 55.8
Innes 53.8
Rideau–Vanier 52.7
Orléans 51.7
Rideau–Rockliffe 51.6
Beacon Hill–Cyrville 47.2
Capital 43.0
Somerset 40.2
Kitchissippi 39.5
Alta Vista 38.7
Gloucester–Southgate 33.8
Gloucester–South Nepean 32.1
River 31.3
Osgoode 31.2
Barrhaven 28.5
Knoxdale–Merivale 28.1
Kanata South 28.0
College 27.9
Kanata North 27.9
Stittsville 27.6
Bay 26.9
West Carleton–March 24.8
Rideau–Goulbourn 23.1
Total – Ottawa 37.2

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

A total of 98.6% of Ottawans were able to conduct a conversation in at least one of the two official languages (data not shown), which means that only 1.4% of Ottawa’s population could not conduct a conversation in English or French. This proportion was higher in certain wards, including Somerset (3.3%), Kanata North (2.3%) and Gloucester–Southgate (2.2%).

3.4. Official languages spoken at home

In 2011, English was the language spoken most often at home in Ottawa. In six city wards, however, the proportion of Ottawans who reported French as their onlyFootnote 10 official language or the one they speak most often at home was greater than 20% (see Table 18). These wards were Cumberland (32.9%), Rideau–Rockcliffe (28.2%), Innes (28.0%), Rideau–Vanier (27.8%), Orléans (25.9%) and Beacon Hill–Cyrville (23.1%).

Table 18: Percentage of the population with French as official language spoken most often at home, city of Ottawa and its wards, 2011
Ward French only as the official language spoken most often at home French as the official language most often spoken at home English and French equally as the official languages spoken most often at home Total of French as the official language spoken most often at home
Cumberland 17.2 12.9 2.8 32.9
Rideau–Rockcliffe 16.4 8.7 3.2 28.2
Innes 14.3 10.9 2.8 28.0
Rideau–Vanier 16.0 8.9 2.8 27.8
Orléans 12.5 10.8 2.6 25.9
Beacon Hill–Cyrville 12.3 7.9 3.0 23.1
Alta Vista 7.3 4.3 2.4 14.0
Gloucester–Southgate 4.7 3.3 2.8 10.8
Somerset 4.5 3.4 1.7 9.5
Capital 3.8 3.1 1.4 8.3
River 3.5 2.5 1.8 7.8
Gloucester–South Nepean 2.2 2.6 1.7 6.5
Bay 3.0 1.8 1.4 6.2
Kitchissippi 2.5 2.3 1.3 6.1
Osgoode 1.9 2.2 0.9 5.0
Kanata North 1.7 1.6 1.6 4.9
Kanata South 1.5 1.7 1.1 4.3
Barrhaven 1.3 1.6 1.4 4.2
College 1.5 1.4 1.2 4.2
Knoxdale–Merivale 1.5 1.4 1.2 4.1
Stittsville 1.2 1.6 0.5 3.4
West Carleton–March 0.8 1.3 0.5 2.7
Rideau–Goulbourn 0.7 0.9 0.5 2.1
Total – Ottawa 6.0 4.4 1.8 12.2

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

4. Language groups in census divisions and subdivisions around Ottawa (2011 Census data)

4.1. Mother tongue

Five census divisions (CD) surround the CD of Ottawa: Stormont–Dundas–Glengarry, Prescott–Russell, Leeds–Grenville, Lanark and Renfrew. In 2011, 65.0% of the population of Prescott–Russell were people whose mother tongue was French (see Table 19). It was the only one of the five CDs that had a greater proportion of people whose mother tongue was French compared to the CD of Ottawa (15.0%).

Table 19: Percentage of the population with French as mother tongue, by census division (CD) and subdivision (CSD) around Ottawa, 2011
Census division (CD) and Subdivision (CSD) around Ottawa Geographical unit French (%) as mother tongue
Stormont–Dundas–Glengarry CD 14.6
North Dundas CSD 8.1
North Stormont CSD 25.3
Prescott–Russell CD 65.0
East Hawkesbury CSD 60.2
Hawkesbury CSD 79.7
Champlain CSD 62.1
Alfred–Plantagenet CSD 75.9
The Nation CSD 67.7
Clarence–Rockland CSD 64.9
Casselman CSD 81.0
Russell CSD 45.7
Leeds–Grenville CD 6.2
Merrickville–Wolford CSD 6.0
North Grenville CSD 6.3
Lanark CD 4.4
Montague CSD 4.2
Beckwith CSD 5.3
Carleton Place CSD 5.0
Mississippi Mills CSD 3.5
Renfrew CD 3.9
Arnprior CSD 4.3
McNab/Braeside CSD 3.4

Note:

Only the census subdivisions that are closest to Ottawa are listed in this table.

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

The population of individuals whose mother tongue was French was also much higher proportionally in each of the census subdivisions (CSDs) in Prescott–Russell than in Ottawa. The proportion of the population whose mother tongue was French varied from 45.7% (Russell) to 81.0% (Casselman).

Conversely, the proportion of the population whose mother tongue was French was less than 15% in the CSDs that make up the other CDs around Ottawa, except the CSD of North Stormont, where it was 25.3%. The CSD of North Stormont is part of Stormont–Dundas–Glengarry, where the population of individuals whose mother tongue was French represented 14.6% of the CD’s overall population.

4.2. First official language spoken

In 2011, 65.4% of the population of Prescott–Russell were people whose FOLS was French (see Table 20). It was the only one of the five CDs that had a greater proportion of individuals whose FOLS was French than the CD of Ottawa (16.4%).

Table 20: Percentage of the population with French as first official language spoken, by census division (CD) and subdivision (CSD) around Ottawa, 2011
Census division (CD) and Subdivision (CSD) around Ottawa Geographical unit French (%) as first official language spoken
Stormont–Dundas–Glengarry CD 14.1
North Dundas CSD 7.7
North Stormont CSD 24.7
Prescott–Russell CD 65.4
East Hawkesbury CSD 61.4
Hawkesbury CSD 80.7
Champlain CSD 62.5
Alfred–Plantagenet CSD 76.2
The Nation CSD 67.9
Clarence–Rockland CSD 65.2
Casselman CSD 81.6
Russell CSD 45.5
Leeds–Grenville CD 5.7
Merrickville–Wolford CSD 5.2
North Grenville CSD 5.8
Lanark CD 4.0
Montague CSD 3.8
Beckwith CSD 4.8
Carleton Place CSD 4.6
Mississippi Mills CSD 3.1
Renfrew CD 3.5
Arnprior CSD 3.7
McNab/Braeside CSD 3.2

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

The population of individuals whose FOLS was French was also much higher proportionally in each of Prescott–Russell’s CSDs than in Ottawa. The proportion of the population whose FOLS was French varied between 45.5% (Russell) and 81.6% (Casselman).

Conversely, the proportion of the population whose FOLS was French was less than 16.4% in the CSDs that make up the other CDs around Ottawa, except the CSD of North Stormont, where it was 24.7%. The CSD of North Stormont is in Stormont–Dundas–Glengarry, where the population of individuals whose mother tongue was French represented 14.1% of the CD’s overall population.

4.3. Knowledge of both official languages

In 2011, the rate of English-French bilingualism in the CD of Prescott–Russell was 66.4% (see Table 21). It was the only one of the five CDs with a higher rate of bilingualism rate than Ottawa (37.2%).

Table 21: Knowledge of both official languages, by census division (CD) and subdivision (CSD) around Ottawa, 2011
Census division (CD) and Subdivision (CSD) around Ottawa Geographical unit Knowledge of both official languages (%)
Stormont–Dundas–Glengarry CD 27.8
North Dundas CSD 19.8
North Stormont CSD 40.9
Prescott–Russell CD 66.4
East Hawkesbury CSD 67.3
Hawkesbury CSD 67.3
Champlain CSD 66.9
Alfred–Plantagenet CSD 67.4
The Nation CSD 67.1
Clarence–Rockland CSD 69.0
Casselman CSD 74.0
Russell CSD 58.3
Leeds–Grenville CD 19.5
Merrickville–Wolford CSD 16.2
North Grenville CSD 20.1
Lanark CD 16.0
Montague CSD 11.6
Beckwith CSD 18.2
Carleton Place CSD 16.5
Mississippi Mills CSD 15.5
Renfrew CD 10.5
Arnprior CSD 11.5
McNab/Braeside CSD 9.4

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

Prescott–Russell’s rate of bilingualism was also much higher in each of its CSDs—varying between 58.3% (Russell) and 74.0% (Casselman)—than in Ottawa.

Conversely, the rate of bilingualism was lower than 37.2% in the CSDs that make up the other CDs around Ottawa, except the CSD of North Stormont, where it was 40.9%. The CSD of North Stormont is in Stormont–Dundas–Glengarry, where the bilingualism rate was 27.8%.

4.4. Official languages spoken at home

In 2011, the proportion of Prescott-Russell residents who reported French as their onlyFootnote 12 official language or the one they speak most oftenFootnote 13 at home was 61.4% (see Table 22). Prescott–Russell was the only one of the five CDs that had a greater proportion of these individuals than the CD of Ottawa (12.2%).

Table 22: Percentage of the population reporting French as official language spoken most often at home, by census division (CD) and subdivision (CSD) around Ottawa, 2011
Census division (CD) and Subdivision (CSD) around Ottawa Geographical unit French only as the official language spoken most often at home (%) French as the official language most often at home (%) English and
French equally as the official language spoken most often at home (%)
Total of French as the official language spoken most often at home (%)
Stormont–Dundas–Glengarry CD 5.3 3.7 0.7 9.7
North Dundas CSD 2.2 1.5 0.5 4.2
North Stormont CSD 10.4 7.5 0.8 18.7
Prescott–Russell CD 43.4 16.0 2.1 61.4
East Hawkesbury CSD 45.6 10.9 1.6 58.2
Hawkesbury CSD 62.1 14.7 2.6 79.4
Champlain CSD 45.3 12.6 1.6 59.5
Alfred–Plantagenet CSD 56.5 15.6 1.3 73.4
The Nation CSD 43.8 17.5 2.3 63.7
Clarence–Rockland CSD 38.7 19.0 2.7 60.4
Casselman CSD 56.7 19.9 2.4 79.0
Russell CSD 24.9 13.4 1.5 39.8
Leeds–Grenville CD 0.6 1.1 0.3 2.0
Merrickville–Wolford CSD 0.4 1.7 0.2 2.2
North Grenville CSD 0.6 1.1 0.2 2.0
Lanark CD 0.4 0.7 0.3 1.5
Montague CSD 0.7 0.7 0.3 1.7
Beckwith CSD 0.4 1.0 0.2 1.6
Carleton Place CSD 0.5 0.9 0.5 1.9
Mississippi Mills CSD 0.3 0.5 0.2 1.0
Renfrew CD 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.8
Arnprior CSD 0.2 0.5 0.2 1.0
McNab/Braeside CSD 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.7

Source:

Statistics Canada, 2011 Census

 

The population of individuals who reported French as the only official language spoken or the one most often spoken at home was also much higher proportionally in each of Prescott–Russell’s CSDs—varying between 39.8% (Russell) and 79.4% (Hawkesbury)—than in Ottawa.

Conversely, the proportion of the population who reported French as the official language spoken most often at home was less than 12.2% in the CSDs that make up the other CDs around Ottawa, except the CSD of North Stormont, where it was 18.7%. The CSD of North Stormont is in Stormont–Dundas–Glengarry, where the proportion of people who reported French as the official language spoken most often at home was 9.7% of the CD’s population.

5. Appendix – Definitions of language variables

Knowledge of official languages

Ability to conduct a conversation in English only, in French only, in both English and French, or in neither English nor French, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

Mother tongue

First language learned at home in childhood and still understood, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

Official languages spoken at home

Data on official languages spoken at home are derived from the question on language spoken most often at home and the question on other languages spoken on a regular basis at home. People who report speaking French most often or regularly, without mentioning English (regardless of whether a language other than English is spoken) are included in the “French only” category. People who report French as the language spoken most often and English as the language spoken regularly (regardless of whether another language is spoken in combination with these two languages) are included in the “French most often” category. The categories of “English only” and “English most often” are created in the same manner. The “English and French equally” category includes instances where both English and French are given as multiple responses to the question on language spoken most often or on a regular basis at home (regardless of whether another language is spoken in combination with these two languages). People who mention neither English nor French as a response to either of the two questions on language spoken at home are included in the category “Other only.”

Language spoken most often at home

Language spoken most often at home, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

Language spoken regularly at home
Other language(s) spoken on a regular basis at home, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.
Language used most often at work

Language used most often at work, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

Language used regularly at work

Other language(s) used regularly at work, as reported by the respondent on May 10, 2011.

First official language spoken

This derivation method is described in the regulations concerning the use of official languages for the provision of public services. It takes into account, first, the knowledge of the two official languages, second, the mother tongue and, third, the language spoken most often at home.

People who can conduct a conversation in French only are assigned French as their first official language spoken. People who can carry on a conversation in English only are assigned English as their first official language spoken. The responses to questions on mother tongue and language spoken most often at home are subsequently used to establish the first official language spoken by people who speak both English and French, or who cannot speak either of the two official languages. The “French” category includes people who have French only or French and at least one non-official language as their mother tongue. People who have English only or English and at least one non-official language as their mother tongue are included in the “English” category. For cases that have not yet been classified, people are assigned to the “French” category when they speak French only or French and at least one non-official language as their language spoken most often at home. The procedure is the same for the “English” category. Thus, the population is classified into two principal categories: “English” or “French.” It is necessary to add two residual categories for people who cannot be classified in accordance with the information available: “English and French” and “neither English nor French.”

Footnotes

Footnote 1

The rounding of numbers in tables may result in totals that do not equal 100.0.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Statistics Canada started to collect data on all languages spoken at home (and not just language spoken most often) in 2001; therefore, the statistics presented here cover the period from 2001 to 2011. However, section 1.4.2. on language spoken most often at home presents information from 1981 to 2011.

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Unemployment rates were calculated using data collected during the reference week, Sunday, May 1, 2011, to Saturday, May 7, 2011.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

"Income" is distinguished from employment income, as it includes all sources of income, including Employment Insurance benefits, pension income, etc. Consequently, "income" is slightly lower than employment income.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

The mean is the average calculated over all incomes, while the median corresponds exactly to the midpoint of the income distribution. The mean is more affected by outliers (extreme numbers); therefore, both the mean and the median must be considered when discussing income.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

This gap in income could be explained by the higher rate of bilingualism among the Francophone population, which might mean access to a larger labour pool. In addition, the Francophone population was overrepresented in some employment sectors, such as public administration and education (see section 2.1.13).

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

This overrepresentation can be seen in both provincial (21.7%) and federal (19.3%) public administration.

Return to footnote 7 referrer

Footnote 8

As mentioned above, this gap may be attributable to the advantage of a higher bilingualism rate among Ottawans whose FOLS is French. It could also be related to differences in the representation of Ottawans whose FOLS is English or French in the various employment sectors and occupations.

Return to footnote 8 referrer

Footnote 9

This overrepresentation can be seen in both provincial (23.1%) and federal (21.1%) public administration. However, this segment of the population was underrepresented in local, municipal and regional public administration (13.5%).

Return to footnote 9 referrer

Footnote 10

Includes cases where French was reported as being used at home in combination with a language other than English.

Return to footnote 10 referrer

Footnote 11

Includes all cases where French was reported to be spoken at home as much as or more than English, including cases where a language other than English or French was also reported as being spoken at home.

Return to footnote 11 referrer

Footnote 12

Includes cases where French was reported as being used at home in combination with a language other than English.

Return to footnote 12 referrer

Footnote 13

Includes all cases where French was reported to be spoken at home as much as or more than English, including cases where a language other than English or French was also reported as being spoken at home.

Return to footnote 13 referrer